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Сущность и классификация товаров PDF Печать E-mail

Товар – это все, что может быть предложено на рынке для удовлетворения потребности человека. Товары классифицируются на основе их характеристик. В зависимости от сферы применения они подразделяются на промышленные и потребительские. В зависимости от продолжительности использования и материальности они подразделяются на следующие три группы:


1. Товары кратковременного пользования – материальные изделия, полностью потребляемые за один или несколько циклов потребления (хлеб, мыло, сахар).

2. Товары длительного пользования – материальные изделия многократного использования (автомобили, одежда).

3. Услуги (ремонт автомобилей).


Классификация потребительских товаров

Потребители покупают большой ассортимент товаров, которые классифицируются по покупательским привычкам потребителей. По данному критерию выделяют:

1) товары повседневного спроса;

2) предварительного выбора;

3) особого спроса;

4) пассивного спроса.


К товарам повседневного спроса относятся часто покупаемые продукты, приобретение которых не связано с особыми раздумьями (мыло, сахар).


Товары повседневного спроса, в свою очередь, подразделяются на:

1) основные продукты, покупаемые потребителями регулярно (хлеб, молоко);

2) предметы крайней необходимости, приобретаемые, когда потребность в них становится обязательной (дубленки, зимние шапки);

3) товары, приобретаемые под воздействием импульса, без предварительного планирования покупки (лотерейные билеты)


Товары предварительного выбора. Это те товары, которые в процессе выбора и покупки сравниваются потребителем между собой по качеству, цене, внешнему оформлению (телевизоры, мебель). Товары особого спроса – товары с уникальными характеристиками и некоторые марочные товары (модная одежда). Товары пассивного спроса, о которых потребитель либо не имеет информации, либо не думает их покупать, пока не узнает об их потребительских свойствах из рекламы (кухонные процессоры).


Классификация товаров промышленного назначения

Выделяют три группы товаров промышленного назначения:

1) материалы и детали;

2) капитальные объекты;

3) вспомогательные материалы и услуги.


Материалы и детали – это товары, полностью используемые в изделии производителя. Они включают сырье, полуфабрикаты и детали.

Сырьевые материалы делятся на два основных класса;

1) продукты сельскохозяйственного производства;

2) природные продукты ( рыба, лесоматериалы ).


Капитальные объекты – товары длительного пользования. Они делятся на две группы:

1) стационарные сооружения  (здания производственные и офисные) и оборудование (генераторы, тали);

2) вспомогательное оборудование (ручной инструмент, персональные компьютеры).


Вспомогательные материалы и услуги – товары краткосрочного пользования и услуги, которые способствуют производству и реализации конечного продукта.


Вспомогательные материалы бывают двух видов:

1) расходные материалы (смазочные материалы, уголь);

2) эксплуатационные ремонтные материалы (краска, гвозди).

Вспомогательные услуги включают:

1) услуги по эксплуатации и ремонту (ремонт машин);

2) консультационные услуги (услуги адвоката).


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0 #1 CraigwoK 14.04.2018 00:47
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0 #2 CraigwoK 15.04.2018 00:10
п»їPayday Cash Advances Explained FurthРµr

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п»їLРµt PayDay Cash Advances Assist YРѕu

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п»їNРѕ Fax Payday Cash Advance

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0 #5 CraigwoK 15.04.2018 12:24
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